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当前文章:Argal Culture in Mongolian Nomadic Civilization


    
      ArgalCultureinMongolianNomadicCivilization
    Delger(Professor,InnerMongoliaUniversityLibrary)
    Mongoliannomadiccivilizationhasalonghistorystretchingoverthousandsofyears-aculturethathasdevelopedinlinewiththenaturalconsiderationsoftheweather,landandnatureoftheMongolianplateauandhasbecomeanimportantpartofhumancultureandanidealexampleofanenvironmentallyfriendlyandsustainableformofliving.Modernization,industrialization,anddevelopment,ontheotherhand,havecausedagreatincreaseinenvironmentalpollution,hastenedglobalwarmingandledtothenearexhaustingofcertainmaterialresources,damagingtherelationshipbetweenmanandhisenvironment.Yet,ifhumanbeingswishtoliveinharmonywithnature,newandenvironmentallyfriendlymeansofenergygenerationarerequiredinordertopreserveandupholdtheecologicalbalance.
    Mongoliannomadiccivilizationisoneexampleofanancientculturethathascenturiesofexperiencewithregardtotheutilizationofeco-friendlyenergy.ThemethodsusedbytheMongoliannomadsarebothscientificandrelevanttoouraimstosafeguardourpresentecosystemandrevolvearoundtheuseofargal,atypeofdriedanimaldungusedasfuel,whichisanexcellentexampleofameansofenergygenerationthatisnotdamagingtotheenvironmentandis,atthesametime,renewable.
    OneTypesofArgalandGreenFuelInvention
    InMongolian,driedcattledungiscalledargal,ofwhichtherearemanydifferentkinds,dependingonwhenitiscollected.Thefrozenvariety,collectedinwinter,isknownaskhuldegusu,thatcollectedinspringiscalledhabur-unargal,thesummervarietyisknownasjun-uargalandtheautumnvarietyasnamur-unargal.Inaddition,thedungofgoatandsheepisknownaskhorgusu,thedungofhorsesanddonkeysisknownaskhomoolandthedungthatiscollectedandcompressedinthesheepyardisknownasurtengorsigeng.Themostimportantoftheseintermsofdailynomadiclifeistheargalcollectedfromcattle.
    InmostMongolianareas,otherformsofdung,suchaskhomool,fromhorses,orkhorgoolfromsheep,goatsandcamelsarealsousedtomakeargal,aswellasthethick,compresseddungfromthesheepyard,whichiscalledurtengorsigeng.Butintheend,cattledungalwaysremainsthemainresourceofargal,becauseithasalargervolumeandmoredensity.
    OverthecourseofthelonghistoryofnomadicproductionprocessesamongtheMongols,theyhaveinventedandutilizedatypeofcheap,greenfuel,whichisbothrenewableandisfavorabletotheenvironment.ItispartoftheculturalheritageoftheMongolsandalsohasvaluefortoday"ssociety.Argalisawastebyproductofanimalhusbandryandonethatcanbeeasilycollected,avoidingtheneedtocutdowntreesforwoodortheneedtominecoalanddamagetheearthandthesoil.Argalisatrulygreenfuelthathasnoexpensiveproductioncostsandisnotharmfultotheenvironment.
    
    TwoCharacteristicsofArgalFire
    Thefirefromargalhasitsownspecialcharacteristics.
    1.Ithasaverylowignitionpoint.Argaliseasilyignitedwhenitiswetorinlowoxygenconditions.Onlydrygrass,drytwigsandwoodcrumbsareneededtoigniteit.
    2.Argalisaformofwastebasedonthegrasseatenbyanimals,sothemaincomponentsofargalconsistofherbaceousmaterialsandplantfibers.Whenitisburnt,thereisnosmokeanditmayhaveapungentsmellandislightblueincolor.
    3.Itburnswithsteadycombustionforalongtimeanditsfireisnotasstrongasthatachievedwithcoalorwood,butitdoesstillgeneratesignificantheat.Therefore,thereisnodangerofasphyxiawhenusingitasasourceofheatinconfinedspaces.
    ThreeUsageofArgalFire
    Thetemperatureofargalfireiswell-suitedforcooking,foodprocessing,heating,makinghandcraftsandforcertainindustrialuses.ThedifferentkindsoffoodcookedonargalfiresinMongolareasarethingssuchastraditionalMongolianmealsanddrinks,cookedcream,butterandfriedmillet-whichallhavetheirownuniqueflavor.Theargalfireisalsoverygoodforheatingthehome.Theargalfirehasalongerburningduration,sofiressetintheeveningcanburnrightthroughtothefollowingmorning,andthefireisverysuitableformaintainingtemperatureindoors.Thelongburningdurationofargalfireisalsogoodforfirebanking.Itisconvenienttomakethefirewhengettingupinthemorning.Theargalfirehasacompletecombustion,sothereislesscarbondioxideandnodamageofpoisoningeveninpoorventilationconditions.
    Mongolsnotonlyuseargalfiresintheirdailylife,butalsoinindustry.Astheargalfirehasatemperatureofabout950-1000?C,thetemperatureisespeciallywell-suitedformanufacturingporcelainandclayware.
    FourMedicinalFunctionsofArgal
    ThenomadicMongolsdiscoveredthatanimaldungcontainedcertainmedicinalpropertiesandcouldbeusedinaspecialmedicaltreatmentcalledthesebesulekhumethod.TheruminationmatterintheanimaldungiscalledsebesuinMongolian.Thewordsebesulekhudenotesakindoftreatmentinwhichthepatient"sdiseasedorgansareplaceddirectlyinthehotanimalexcrement.ThesebesulgeisaveryancientfolktreatmentandlaterbecameaveryimportantsurgicaltreatmentinpracticalMongolianmedicine.Thistreatmentisgoodforhealingrheumaticdiseases,arthropathy,women"sgonorrhea,broomsymptomofsir-ausuandpulsediseasesetc.
    Astheargalmostlyconsistsofplantmaterial,thereareplentyofmethylcarbonatesormixturesofKNO3.Themethylcarbonatehasfunctionsofsterilizationandkillingbacteria.ArgalhasalsobeenusedinMongolianveterinaryscience,too.
    FiveTheFeedandFertilizerFunctionsofArgal
    Argalisalsousedasfeed.Accordingtoexperiments,itconsistsofproteins,crudefats,nitrogen-freeextracts,crudefiber,coarsepowerandcalcium.Almostoftheproteininargalisagooddigestionfeedfornon-ruminantanimals.
    Theurtengorsigengfertilizer:Mongolsusuallyharvesturtengorsigegfertilizerfromtheanimalgardensoftheirwinterherdingplacesandputitintothefieldasafertilizer.Asurtengisaneco-friendlyfertilizerwhichhasahighnutritionalvalue,thecropsgrownonurtengfertilizedfieldsgrowstrong,withdarkgreenstalks,betterimmunologiccompetence,draughtresistance,goodblossomandpollenacceptation,andexcellentseedling.Therestofthedungonthepasturelandsisdecomposedbythesun,wind,rainorsnow,orbydungbeetlesandisabsorbednaturallyasfertilizerintothesoil.
    Theargalashisusedasakindofalkalinefertilizer.Thefertilizerhasgoodfunctionsofchlorineresistance;therefore,Mongolsusuallyputpotatoseedsinthedryashofargalbeforetheyplantthepotatoseedsinthefield,aspotatoesarenotgrownsowellinsoilrichinchlorine.Thepotassiumcanincreaseaplant"soxygensupply,metabolismandsynthesisandtransmissionofthesaccharine,sothatithelpsthehealthygrowthoftheplantbar,immunologiccompetence,resistancetonaturaldisasteranditsdraughtresistance.Therefore,itisveryusefultoanimalhusbandryandagriculturalproduction.Soargalorurtengorsigengarerealgreenfertilizerswhichareparticularlywell-suitedforhumanhealthandenvironmentalprotection.
    Six.TheSignificanceofArgalFuel
    Theargalfuelisoftenregardedasbeingsomewhatlaughable,orevenassomethingsimple,backwardordirtyamongsomeindustrializedcommunities.Onthecontrary,toherdingpeople,theargalisakindofcleanfuelfortheirtraditionalstoveburningculturesandasymbolofahotandwarmlifeandindispensableenergyresourcesfortheirdailylife.Asummarytotheforgoingpartsareasfollows:inordertosupplythedifferentkindsofneedsofeverydaylife,peoplehavetobreedlivestock.Areasonablesizedherdisgoodforpreventingthegrassorpasturefromdyingbysubtilisgrowninthepreviousyearandhardeningofthesoil.Animalproductsarerenewable.Thediscoveryofthefuelofargal,notonlysolvedtheenergyneedsoftheMongols,butalsodecreasedthedungcoveringthepasturelands,andpreventedthenecessityofcuttingwoodanddestroyingtheforest,ordiggingcoalminesanddamagingtheearth.Theargalisalsousedaskindoffeedorfertilizer,orusedinmedicine.Itisaprimeexampleofputtingawasteproducttogooduse.Thecirculationof"grass→animal→argal→heat→life→protection→grass"isaformofecologicalcirculationandhasbecameaveryscientificchoiceforlifeandproduction,inMongoliannomadiccivilization.
    Ifwerefertotherecyclingtruthof"grass→animal→argal→heat→life→protection→grass"inMongoliannomadiccivilization,wemaybegintocreateasimilarrecyclingtruthof"theearth→coalandoil→energy→lifeandproduction→protection→theearth",andwewouldsaveourplanetfromdestruction,haveaharmoniouscoexistencewithnaturesothatwehumanscouldexisthealthilyonthisblueplanetforever.Therefore,drawinglessonsfromanddevelopingfurtherstudyontheargalcultureofMongoliannomadiccivilizationisimportantforpracticalandlong-termsignificanceforsavingtheecosysteminwhichwehumanbeingsexist.
    
    
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